Birds are feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic, egg-laying, vertebrate animals. With around 10,000 living species, they are the most speciose class of tetrapod vertebrates. All present species belong to the subclass Neornithes, and inhabit ecosystems across the globe, from the Arctic to the Antarctic. Extant birds range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) Bee Hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) Ostrich.
BirdAnimalsBiological pest controlBirds
A passerine is a bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species. Sometimes known as perching birds or, less accurately, as songbirds, the passerines form one of the most diverse terrestrial vertebrate orders: with over 5,000 identified species, it has roughly twice as many species as the largest of the mammal orders, the Rodentia. It contains over 110 families, the second most of any order of vertebrates.
Bird migration is the regular seasonal journey undertaken by many species of birds. Bird movements include those made in response to changes in food availability, habitat, or weather. Sometimes, journeys are not termed "true migration" because they are irregular (nomadism, invasions, irruptions) or in only one direction (dispersal, movement of young away from natal area). Migration is marked by its annual seasonality.
Bird migrationBird terminologyOrnithologyBird flight
Bird of prey
Birds of prey are birds that hunt for food primarily via flight, using their keen senses, especially vision. They are defined as birds that primarily hunt vertebrates, including other birds. Their talons and beaks tend to be relatively large, powerful and adapted for tearing flesh. In most cases, the females are considerably larger than the males.
Bird of preyBirds of prey
Seabirds (also known as marine birds) are birds that have adapted to life within the marine environment. While seabirds vary greatly in lifestyle, behaviour and physiology, they often exhibit striking convergent evolution, as the same environmental problems and feeding niches have resulted in similar adaptations. The first seabirds evolved in the Cretaceous period, and modern seabird families emerged in the Paleogene.
Hummingbirds are birds that comprise the family Trochilidae. They are among the smallest of birds, most species measuring in the 7.5–13 cm (3–5 in) range. Indeed, the smallest extant bird species is a hummingbird, the 5-cm Bee Hummingbird. They can hover in mid-air by rapidly flapping their wings 12–80 times per second (depending on the species).
HummingbirdTrochilidaeTrochiliformesHummingbirdsWestern North American migratory birdsPollinatorsNatural history of the AmericasNational symbols of Trinidad and Tobago
Waders, called shorebirds in North America (where "wader" is used to refer to long-legged wading birds such as storks and herons), are members of the order Charadriiformes, excluding the more marine web-footed seabird groups. The latter are the skuas (Stercorariidae), gulls (Laridae), terns (Sternidae), skimmers (Rynchopidae), and auks (Alcidae). Also, the pratincoles (Glareolidae) and the Crab Plover (Dromadidae), which bear greater resemblance to waders, are closely related to the seabirds.
Birdwatching or birding is the observation of birds as a recreational activity. It can be done with the naked eye, through a visual enhancement device like binoculars and telescopes, or by listening for bird sounds. Birding often involves a significant auditory component, as many bird species are more easily detected and identified by ear than by eye.
The order Falconiformes is a group of about 290 species of birds that comprises the diurnal birds of prey. Raptor classification is difficult and the order is treated in several ways.
FalconiformesBirds of preyFalconiformes
Poultry is a category of domesticated birds kept by humans for the purpose of collecting their eggs, or killing for their meat and/or feathers. These most typically are members of the superorder Galloanserae (fowl), especially the order Galliformes and the family Anatidae, commonly known as "waterfowl". Poultry also includes other birds which are killed for their meat, such as pigeons or doves or birds considered to be game, like pheasants.
Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds. Several aspects of ornithology differ from related disciplines, due partly to the high visibility and the aesthetic appeal of birds. Most marked among these is the extent of studies undertaken by amateurs working within the parameters of strict scientific methodology.
OrnithologySubfields of zoologyOrnithology
Waterfowl are certain wildfowl of the order Anseriformes, especially members of the family Anatidae, which includes ducks, geese, and swans. They are strong swimmers with medium to large bodies. They have historically been an important food source, and continue to be hunted as game, or raised as poultry for meat and eggs. The domestic duck is sometimes kept as a pet.
Human sexual activity
Human sexual activities or human sexual practices or human sexual behavior refers to the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality. People engage in a variety of sexual acts from time to time, and for a wide variety of reasons. Sexual activity normally results in sexual arousal and physiological changes in the aroused person, some of which are pronounced while others are more subtle.
Human sexual activityIntimate relationshipsHuman behaviorHuman sexualityPersonal lifeFertilitySelf
Kingfishers are a group of small to medium sized brightly coloured birds in the order Coraciiformes. They have a cosmopolitan distribution, with most species being found in the Old World and Australia. The group is treated either as a single family, Alcedinidae, or as a suborder Alcedines containing three families, Alcedinidae, Halcyonidae, and Cerylidae. There are roughly 90 species of kingfisher. All have large heads, long, sharp, pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails.
Pheasants refer to some members of the Phasianinae subfamily of Phasianidae in the order Galliformes. Pheasants are characterised by strong sexual dimorphism, males being highly ornate with bright colours and adornments such as wattles and long tails. Males are usually larger than females and have longer tails. Males play no part in rearing the young. Pheasants typically eat seeds and some insects.
Galliformes are an order of heavy-bodied ground-feeding domestic or game birds, containing turkey, grouse, chicken, New and Old World Quail, ptarmigan, partridge, pheasant, and the Cracidae. Common names are gamefowl or gamebirds, landfowl, gallinaceous birds or galliforms. "Wildfowl" or just "fowl" are also often used for Galliformes, but usually these terms also refer to waterfowl (Anseriformes), and occasionally to other commonly hunted birds.
A songbird is a bird belonging to the clade Passeri of the perching birds. Another name that is sometimes seen as scientific or vernacular name is Oscines, from Latin oscen, "a songbird". This group contains some 4,000 species found all over the world, in which the vocal organ typically is developed in such a way as to produce a diverse and elaborate bird song.
The cuckoos are a family, Cuculidae, of near passerine birds. The order Cuculiformes, in addition to the cuckoos, also includes the turacos (family Musophagidae, sometimes treated as a separate order, Musophagiformes). Some zoologists and taxonomists have also included the unique Hoatzin in the Cuculiformes, but its taxonomy remains in dispute. The cuckoo family, in addition to those species named as such, also includes the roadrunners, koels, malkohas, couas, coucals and anis.
Endangered Species Act
The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is one of the dozens of United States environmental laws passed in the 1970s. Signed into law by President Richard Nixon on December 28, 1973, it was designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction as a "consequence of economic growth and development untempered by adequate concern and conservation.
Endangered Species ActBiota of the United States by conservation status1973 in lawConservation in the United StatesUnited States Fish and Wildlife ServiceUnited States federal public land legislationUnited States federal environmental legislation1973 in the environment
Game is any animal hunted for food or not normally domesticated. Game animals are also hunted for sport. The type and range of animals hunted for food varies in different parts of the world. This is influenced by climate, animal diversity, local taste and locally accepted views about what can or cannot be legitimately hunted. Sometimes a distinction is also made between varieties and species of a particular animal, such as wild or domestic turkey.
Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) is a charitable organisation registered in England and Wales and in Scotland. It works to promote conservation and protection of birds and the wider environment through public awareness campaigns, petitions and through the operation of nature reserves throughout the United Kingdom.
Royal Society for the Protection of BirdsAnimal charities based in the United Kingdom1889 establishments in the United KingdomCharities based in BedfordshireRoyal Society for the Protection of BirdsOrganizations established in 1889Ornithological organizationsEnvironmental organisations based in England1889 establishments in England
Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by activity during the night and sleeping during the day. The common adjective is "nocturnal". Nocturnal creatures generally have highly developed senses of hearing and smell, and specially adapted eyesight. Some animals, such as cats and ferrets, have eyes that can adapt to both low-level and bright day levels of illumination. Others, e.g. bushbabies and (some) bats, can function only at night.
NocturnalitySleepChronobiologyAntipredator adaptationsPredationEthologyCircadian rhythmsNightBehavioral ecologyBiological interactions
Bird vocalization includes both bird calls and bird songs. In non-technical use, bird songs are the bird sounds that are melodious to the human ear. In ornithology and birding, (relatively complex) songs are distinguished by function from (relatively simple) calls.
Bird vocalizationSong formsNeuroethologyBird soundsAnimal identificationOrnithologyZoomusicology
A bird nest is the spot in which a bird lays and incubates its eggs and raises its young. Although the term popularly refers to a specific structure made by the bird itself—such as the grassy cup nest of the American Robin or Eurasian Blackbird, or the elaborately woven hanging nest of the Montezuma Oropendola or the Village Weaver—that is too restrictive a definition.
Bird nestBird terminologyBird breedingOrnithologyShelters built or used by animals
Taxidermy (from the Greek for arrangement of skin) is the art of preparing, stuffing, and mounting the skins of animals (especially vertebrates) for display or for other sources of study. Taxidermy can be done on all vertebrate species of animals, including mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and amphibians. A person who practices taxidermy is called a taxidermist.
TaxidermyArts and craftsDeath customsAnimal deathTaxidermy
For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see Influenza A virus subtype H5N1. 50x40px This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Avian influenza — known informally as avian flu or bird flu — refers to "influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds. " Of the greatest concern is highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI).
Avian influenzaBird diseasesPoultry diseasesAvian influenzaAnimal virologyAgricultural health and safety
The order Anseriformes contains about 150 living species of birds in three extant families: the Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae, and the Anatidae, which includes over 140 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans. All species in the order are highly adapted for an aquatic existence at the water surface. All are web-footed for efficient swimming (although some have subsequently become mainly terrestrial).
A juvenile is an individual organism that has not yet reached its adult form, sexual maturity or size. Juveniles sometimes look very different from the adult form, particularly in terms of their colour. In many organisms the juvenile has a different name from the adult. Some organisms reach maturity in a short metamorphosis, such as eclosion in many insects. For others, the transition from juvenile to fully mature is a more prolonged process – puberty for example.
Juvenile (organism)Developmental biology
Falconry is the hunting of wild quarry in its natural state and habitat by means of a trained bird of prey. There are two traditional terms used to describe a person involved in falconry: a falconer flies a falcon; an austringer flies a hawk or an eagle. In modern falconry the Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) and the Harris hawk are often used.
An automaton is a self-operating machine. The word is sometimes used to describe a robot, more specifically an autonomous robot. An alternative spelling, now obsolete, is automation.
AutomatonAutomationGreek loanwordsRoboticsAncient Greek technology18th century
Special Protection Area
A Special Protection Area or SPA is a designation under the European Union Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds. Under the Directive, Member States of the European Union (EU) have a duty to safeguard the habitats of migratory birds and certain particularly threatened birds. Together with Special Areas of Conservation (SACs), the SPAs form a network of protected sites across the EU, called Natura 2000.
Special Protection AreaSpecial Protection Areas
The Ploceidae, or weavers, are small passerine birds related to the finches. These are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills, most of which are from Sub-Saharan Africa, with fewer species in tropical Asia. A few species have been introduced outside their native range. The weaver group is divided into the buffalo, sparrow, typical, and widow weavers.
A clutch of eggs refers to all the eggs produced by birds, amphibians, or reptiles, often at a single time, particularly those laid in a nest. In birds, destruction of a clutch by predators, (or removal by humans, for example the California Condor breeding program), results in double-clutching. The technique is used to double the production of a species eggs, in the California Condor case, specifically to increase population size.
Clutch (eggs)Bird terminologyAvicultureBird breedingOology
The white-eyes are small passerine birds native to tropical, subtropical and temperate Sub-Saharan Africa, southern and eastern Asia, and Australasia. White-eyes inhabit most tropical islands in the Indian Ocean, the western Pacific Ocean, and the Gulf of Guinea. Discounting some widespread members of the genus Zosterops, most species are endemic to single islands or archipelagos.
In terrestrial zoology, megafauna are "giant", "very large" or "large" animals. The most common thresholds used are 44 kilograms (100 lb) or 100 kilograms (220 lb). This thus includes many species not popularly thought of as overly large, such as white-tailed deer and red kangaroo, and for the lower figure, even humans. In practice the most common usage encountered in academic and popular writing describes land animals roughly larger than a human which are not (solely) domesticated.
Battle of Kosovo
This page is about the Battle of Kosovo of 1389.
Battle of KosovoConflicts in 1389Battles of the Ottoman–Serbian Wars14th century in SerbiaBattles involving the Ottoman EmpireBattles involving SerbiaHistory of Kosovo1389 in EuropeWarfare of the Middle Ages14th century in the Ottoman Empire
Brood parasites are organisms that use the strategy of brood parasitism, a kind of kleptoparasitism found among birds, fish or insects, involving the manipulation and use of host individuals either of the same (intraspecific brood-parasitism) or different species (interspecific brood-parasitism) to raise the young of the brood-parasite. This relieves the parasitic parent from the investment of rearing young or building nests, enabling them to spend more time foraging, producing offspring etc.
Brood parasiteBird terminologyBrood parasites
An aviary is a large enclosure for confining birds. Unlike cages, aviaries allow birds a larger living space where they can fly; hence, aviaries are also sometimes known as flight cages. Aviaries often contain plants and shrubbery to simulate a natural environment.
AviaryBird terminologyBird parksBuildings and structures used to confine animalsAviaries
Kiwi are flightless birds endemic to New Zealand, in the genus Apteryx and family Apterygidae. At around the size of a domestic chicken, kiwi are by far the smallest living ratites and lay the largest egg in relation to their body size of any species of bird in the world. There are five recognised species, two of which are currently vulnerable, one of which is endangered, and one of which is critically endangered.
KiwiBirds of New ZealandFlightless birdsEndemic fauna of New ZealandNational symbols of New ZealandRatitesApteryxHigher-level bird taxa restricted to New ZealandHeraldic birds
The orioles are a family of Old World passerine birds.
The term water bird, waterbird or aquatic bird is used to refer to birds that live on or around water. Some definitions apply the term especially to birds in freshwater habitats, though others make no distinction from birds that inhabit marine environments. In addition, some water birds are more terrestrial or aquatic than others, and their adaptations will vary depending on their environment.
Water birdBird terminologyBirds by common name
A booby is a seabird in the genus Sula, part of the Sulidae family. Boobies are closely related to the gannets (Morus), which were formerly included in Sula.
BoobySulaBoobiesGenera of birds
The augur was a priest and official in the classical world, especially ancient Rome and Etruria. His main role was to interpret the will of the gods by studying the flight of birds: whether they are flying in groups/alone, what noises they make as they fly, direction of flight and what kind of birds they are. This was known as "taking the auspices.
AugurAncient Roman priestsDivinationAncient Roman religion
The birds-of-paradise are members of the family Paradisaeidae of the order Passeriformes. The majority of species in this family are found on the island of New Guinea and its satellites, with a few species occurring in the Moluccas and eastern Australia. The family has forty species in 14 genera. The members of this family are perhaps best known for the plumage of the males of most species, in particular highly elongated and elaborate feathers extending from the beak, wings or head.
The frigatebirds are a family, Fregatidae, of seabirds. There are five species in the single genus Fregata. They are also sometimes called Man of War birds or Pirate birds. Since they are related to the pelicans, the term "frigate pelican" is also a name applied to them. They have long wings, tails and bills and the males have a red gular pouch that is inflated during the breeding season to attract a mate. Frigatebirds are pelagic piscivores which obtain most of their food on the wing.
FrigatebirdNational symbols of NauruFregataSeabirdsFregatidae
colspan=2 style="text-align: center; background-color: transparent; text-align:center; border: 1px solid red;" | Short-tailed Shearwater,Slender-billed Shearwater File:Puffinus tenuirostris - SE Tasmania. jpg Conservation status File:Status iucn3.1 LC.
Short-tailed ShearwaterBirds of New ZealandBirds of Western AustraliaBirds of PakistanBirds of South AustraliaAnimals described in 1835Western North American migratory birdsSubterranean nesting birdsBirds of TasmaniaPuffinus
Tweety Bird (also known as Tweety Pie or simply Tweety) is a fictional Yellow Canary in the Warner Bros. Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of animated cartoons. The name "Tweety" is a play on words, as it originally meant "sweetie", along with "tweet" being a typical English onomatopoeia for the sounds of birds. His characteristics are based on Red Skelton famous "Mean Widdle Kid". Tweety appeared in 48 cartoons in the Golden Age.
TweetyFictional characters introduced in 1942Looney Tunes charactersFictional anthropomorphic charactersGold Key Comics titlesFictional canariesDell Comics titles
Bird eggs are laid by females and incubated for a time that varies according to the species; a single young hatches from each egg. Average clutch sizes range from one to about 17. Some birds lay eggs even when not fertilized; it is not uncommon for pet owners to find their lone bird nesting on a clutch of infertile eggs, which are sometimes called wind-eggs.
Bird eggAvicultureBird breedingEggs
A bird colony is a large congregation of individuals of one or more species of bird that nest or roost in close proximity at a particular location. Many kinds of birds are known to congregate in groups of varying size; a congregation of nesting birds is called a breeding colony. Colonial nesting birds include seabirds such as auks and albatrosses; wetland species such as herons; and a few passerines such as weaverbirds, certain blackbirds, and some swallows.
Bird colonyBird breedingOrnithology
An aquatic ecosystem is an ecosystem in a body of water. Communities of organisms that are dependent on each other and on their environment live in aquatic ecosystems. The two main types of aquatic ecosystems are marine ecosystems and freshwater ecosystems.
Aquatic ecosystemAquatic ecologyFisheries scienceWaterSystems ecologyEcosystems
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